Regimental Manual - Chapter 9 Fourth Class Summer Orientation and Cadet Leadership Training Procedures

9-100     General

9-200     Training of Fourth Class Cadets

9-300     Training Objectives

9-400     Leadership Training of the Third Class Cadets

9-500     Leadership Responsibilities of the First, Second, and Third Class Cadets

9-100 General

101 In the practice of leadership, especially in training situations, it is considered natural that mistakes may be made.  Through trial and error, a cadet learns the fundamental techniques required of a leader. It is the responsibility of the staff and faculty of the Academy, as well as the senior cadets in positions of responsibility, to detect mistakes, to attempt to correct them and to provide fair punishment for the small fraction of cadets who do not respond to correction.   Most important is the role the cadets themselves must play in the perpetuation of the high standards and ideals handed down by those who have responded to the challenge of leadership.  In so doing, they will have made a contribution to a foundation upon which the cadets of today can build for tomorrow.  Our Academy cannot be better than the cadets who comprise the Regiment and the leadership that is provided at all levels.  Failure to participate wholeheartedly and thoroughly in these leadership activities deprives an individual of achieving the greatest benefits from the unique program that is MMA.  The opportunity to practice and cultivate leadership skills should not be taken lightly.

102 Leadership
The intricacies of leadership are many and varied, but several key points include the following:
A. Lead by example instead of by fear and/or decree.
B. Lead by correction instead of punishment, reserving punishment for those who do not respond to correction.
C. Lead by compassion instead of leading by aloofness and isolation by virtue of superior position.
D. Lead by dwelling on the positive instead of dwelling on the negative aspects of any situation.
E. Lead by enthusiasm instead of leading by criticism and despondency.
F. Lead by frequent communication instead of leading by unnecessary secrecy and neglect of passing vital information to subordinates.
These fundamentals are neither a cure-all nor the total secret to leadership but can provide an atmosphere for high performance, good morale and a feeling of cooperation among shipmates.

103 Leadership Goals
All cadets must learn the rules whereby the Fourth Class orientation system is conducted.  They must apply leadership on a daily basis so that this vital quality can be fully developed by the time a cadet graduates.  The responsibility is upon the Fourth Class to learn.  The prime responsibility upon the First, Second and Third Class is to teach.  Among other goals, the system is intended to provide an opportunity for the First, Second and Third Class to exercise qualities of leadership.  It is considered the role of the Fourth Class to practice the facet of leadership known as “followership,” as it is necessary to learn to follow before one can learn to lead.  There is a need to cultivate the habits of self-discipline and to practice them until they are second nature. 

9-200 Training of Fourth Class Cadets

201 Philosophy of Training
This section outlines the training of the fourth Class cadets by all First, Second and Third Class Cadets, who must have a thorough knowledge of the contents of this section and the duties and responsibilities of Fourth Class.
A. The training program is based upon two aspects: (1) positive leadership by example, and (2) correction for failure to perform to prescribed standards.  This program is as valuable to the upperclassmen who must practice good leadership techniques as it is to the Fourth Class who receive the training. 
B. The objectives of the Fourth Class cadet training as stated are the essence of the training program.  The upper class will permit no purposeless or undignified practice.  The dignity of each cadet will be respected at all times.
C. The training of a Fourth Class cadet is divided into four phases:
     1. Phase I: Cadet Orientation Period is the time during which a Fourth Class undergoes the most accelerated phase of training that will ever be encountered in his/her four years of cadet life.  It requires close supervision by the cadet leaers and a complete devotion to duty.  During this phase, the cadet candidate is given the training and orientation that he/she will need to join the Regiment of Cadets.  All cadet candidates are required to pass the physical fitness test.  If a candidate does not pass the PT test during orientation he or she will be required to participate in remedial PT with a member of the regimental staff during the period prior to fourth class recognition weekend. If at the time of recognition the candidate still cannot pass the PT test, he/she will not receive a recognition lapel pin to be worn on their dress blue uniform until the PT test is passed. Any exception to this rule will be heard and adjudicated by the Deputy Commandant.
     2. Phase II: 
Commencement of the academic year until the termination of Christmas leave is the time devoted to academics.  The establishment of study hours and the creation of a proper academic atmosphere are essential.  Professional training and orientation are limited to specific times.  This should not lead, however, to poor performance, appearance, or conduct.  The highest standard possible for each individual should always be met.  This should be the objective of every cadet during his/her four years at the Academy.
     3. Phase III: From termination of Phase II until completion of the Winter Term, the cadet is introduced to hands-on training in his/her respective major.
     4. Phase IV: From termination of Phase III until the termination of the spring semester is a period of introduction to leadership goals.  This introduction should be carried out by squads and or platoons.  Emphasis is on Fourth Class recognition of company duties and execution through a personal sense of duty.

202 Training Requirements and Guidelines
A. General Requirements: In order to properly train a Fourth Class Cadet, the upperclassmen must have a thorough knowledge of Fourth Class requirements.  All three upper classes, therefore, must be initially familiar with this entire manual.
     1. Fourth Class Cadets must be allowed a reasonable period of time to become proficient in what they are being trained to learn.  Each cadet must have an equal opportunity to display his/her ability.  The weak and indifferent can only be identified through fair and just implementation of the training program.
     2. Early in the program, the upper class must develop in the Fourth Class Cadet the ability to budget time. This is necessary so that the cadet keeps up with studies, duties, and responsibilities and to prevent the inefficient use of time.
Violators of Fourth Class rules of conduct and those who fail to meet training standards should be corrected on the spot.  They should be informed of the reason for the correction.  The primary responsibility for each Fourth Class Cadet rests with his/her squad leader.  The squad leader will be notified each time a Fourth Class Cadet in his/her squad is corrected for any but the most minor reason.  The predominant causes for failure of Fourth Class Cadets to meet training standards are poor proficiency, slow learning, and ignorance of obligations; therefore, squad leaders are expected to use corrective training rather than sanctions for those who need help.
     4. It is the responsibility of each squad leader and every upperclassman in the squad, platoon and company to be familiar with the Fourth Class cadets in their respective units.  A basic quality of good leadership is to know one’s people and give them one’s sincere attention and assistance.   In order to have the Fourth Class respond to requirements, the cadet leader must be sensitive to the needs of his/her trainees.
B. Rules for Accomplishing Training: The following rules and guidelines will not cover all situations; however, they will specify and contain procedures and policies to establish the “spirit” of the Fourth Class Training Program.
Class Training Program.
     1. At no time is a Fourth Class cadet to be placed in a situation in which his/her honor could be compromised.
     2. Upper class cadets will not initiate communications of any kind with parents of Fourth Class Cadets.  Any communication initiated by parents of Fourth Class Cadets will be brought to the attention of the respective Company Officer. 
     3. Positive leadership by example requires that a cadet maintain the highest level of standards possible in appearance, conduct and self-discipline.  These standards must be required of and met by the Fourth Class.
     4. Profanity serves no useful purpose in interpersonal relationships except to degrade the user.  Profanity will not be tolerated in any situation.
     5. Fourth Class Posture:  A Fourth Class Cadet will assume the normal position of attention when appropriate.  Hands will be slightly cupped, and normal gait will be used.  Good natural posture is to be stressed at all times.
     6. Fourth Class Cadets are not to be used for personal servitude of any nature.  This includes soda/store runs, room cleaning, shoe shines, etc.  Using Fourth Class Cadets to improve or clean public areas or to provide service to the Academy, etc. is permitted.
     7. The Cadet Dining Hall is not the place to train Fourth Class Cadets except in table manners.  He/She will not be denied a full and relaxed meal as a result of any deficient performance either in or out of the Dining Hall.
Emphasize POSTURE, ETIQUETTE, and HONOR on a constant basis!  Leadership by example is your “big stick.”  Train the Fourth Class to meet the standards that the cadet leader sets.
C. Objectives of Training
Imparting Discipline:  The training program has the primary aim of teaching self-control, discipline, respect for authority and obedience.  These principles are to be taught, not by fear or punishment, but in such a manner as to make them inherent characteristics of the trainee. 
     2. Conditioning to Operate Efficiently under Pressure:  A Fourth Class Cadet must learn to perform and complete tasks to a high standard while overcoming factors of fatigue and conflicting demands on his/her time.  
     3. Revealing the Individual’s Character Traits and Attitudes:  The function of the Fourth Class program is to test and reveal character traits of each individual cadet to the Academy authorities.  It should be the aim of the leadership to direct the Fourth Class Cadet to develop his/her character through teamwork and “pulling his/her own weight.”
     4. Sense of Responsibility for Others:  The Fourth Class Training Program must show that the individual can get more done for himself/herself by working with others.  He/She must learn the concept of teamwork in which the group goal is more important than the individual rewards.  He/She must also develop a sense of compassion for and respect toward other individuals. 
     5. Pride and Morale: The Fourth Class Training Program develops pride and morale by making the cadet feel that he/she really belongs.

203 Correction Techniques
A. General
     1. Assist the cadet in a constructive manner so that he/she will learn from experience.  Those cadets who display an inability to learn through corrective action shall be reported using the Mast Reporting System.  Excessive accumulation of demerits in this system may result in the separation of the cadet from the Academy.
     2. Firm and direct corrections shall be limited to those individuals who do not respond to normal communications and corrective measures.  The staff shall maintain composure and dignity when making corrections.
     3. No humiliating, degrading, or threatening methods of correction will be utilized.
     4. All corrective action shall be proportional to the offense.
     5. At no time will a Fourth Class Cadet be physically struck or abused by any superior.
     6. The best correction is that which clearly defines the offense at the time it occurs and which includes advice on how to avoid repeating the offense.  Most violations of the Fourth Class system can best be corrected with explanation/instructions at the time of the offense.
     7. Fourth Class punishment does not take precedence over official cadet activities, such as class, intercollegiate athletics, or extra instruction.
B. Corrective techniques: The following are authorized means of dealing with Fourth Class Cadets who fail to perform properly.
     1. Verbal, on the spot correction may be carried out at any time.  Reprimands of a constructive nature should be used.
     2. Ten push-ups may be required. Push-ups are to be awarded conservatively and in selected situations. Push-ups are not appropriate punishment in the dining hall or on the training ship.
     3. Extra instruction details may be given if the preceding corrective techniques have proven ineffective.  It should be remembered that extra instruction is given not as punishment but to correct a noted deficiency.  Care should be taken to first identify the deficiency (i.e., lack of attention to detail or failure to respond promptly to commands) and to tailor an instruction program to correct the fault.
     4. Conduct System: Fourth Class Cadets will be places on report for violations of the Cadet Regulations.
C. Prohibited Corrective Techniques
The following are correction techniques that are not authorized means of dealing with Fourth Class Cadets who fail to perform properly:
     1. Physical exercise of any type except for pushups as prescribed above.
     2. Personal servitude, riding the shaft, bilge diving, box drills, "hurricaning" of rooms, sweat box and other dangerous activities.
     3. Any conduct that willfully or recklessly endangers the physical or mental health of any cadet or any other person is not tolerated.
     4. Under no circumstances shall upper class cadets take it upon themselves to utilize unauthorized degrading or humiliating methods which might result in injury to a Fourth Class Cadet. Violation by upper-class of any of the above will be adjudicated through the Mast Board System and lead to loss of position and more.
D. Responsibilities

     1. The cadet chain of command will ensure that only authorized rules of conduct and demands for learning are imposed on Fourth Class Cadets, that corrective measures and awards are consistent with delinquencies, that only authorized methods are administered, and that appropriate action is taken to correct abuses of the Fourth Class training practices.
All upperclassmen will contribute to the training of the Fourth Class by closely monitoring individual Fourth Class Cadets, by making on the spot corrections of minor violations, by maintaining a positive attitude toward the Fourth Class system, and by setting high standards of performance to be met by the leadership and by the Fourth Class.
     3. The Commandant of Cadet and his staff will ensure proper training techniques are being used by the upperclassmen.

9-300 Training Objectives

301 Leadership
This section identifies the traits, activities, and skills which are qualities of an effective leader and are the Training Objective for the Academy.
A. Personal Development Objectives are meant to develop those traits upon which to build practical abilities and skills.  The graduate of Massachusetts Maritime Academy will have the following:
     1. Honor and integrity.  Understand the difference between group loyalty and individual honor.
     2. Pride in unit and profession.  Loyalty to command.
     3. Self-confidence and awareness.  This helps in understanding others' motivation; thereby understanding others.
     4. Self-discipline.  One has personal responsibility and will hold others reasonable for their actions.
     5. Toleration for others' virtues.  One has an appreciation for the special needs abilities of people.
     6. An appreciation of the traditions of the sea.  One has an attitude of professionalism towards his/her job. 
     7. A recognition of the need for continued intellectual and professional growth.
B. Organization (Team) Development Objectives are meant to develop those traits and activities by which a person establishes a smoothly running, self-sustaining unit is established.  The graduate of the Academy will do the following:
     1. Conduct imaginative and innovative training of assigned personnel.  Assess present needs as well as future needs and provide development opportunities for all subordinates.
     2. Protect and increase unit members' self-esteem.  Keep them informed.  Let them know the best is expected from them, and support them steadfastly.
     3. Use and support subordinate leaders.  Involve them in planning and organization for the achievement of goals.
     4. Motivate subordinates to regard unit goals as their own.  Develop pride and feeling of belonging.  Stress the importance of their work.
     5. Help develop effective teamwork and mutual respect among subordinates.
     6. Give subordinates positive feedback.  Make them feel proud of meeting the high standards set of them.  Praise good work, and lavishly raise excellence.
     7. Provide for human maintenance needs.  Be available for counseling personal problems.  Refer subordinates to experts whenever necessary.
C. Leadership Behavioral Objectives are meant to develop those skills and activities which a person needs to do the job assigned.  The graduate of the Academy will do the following:
     1. Assume a job and control of people with little difficulty.  This includes planning and organizing.  A graduate will be able to allocate resources, identify problems and requirements, establish priorities, and develop a systematic approach to ensure mission accomplishment.
     2. Communicate to superiors, subordinates, and peers.  Coordinate with others to promote successful outcomes.
     3. Act independently if necessary.
     4. Follow through on intended courses of action.  Direct subordinates during the performance of functions.
     5. Observe the performance of subordinates.  Redirect their activities as necessary to ensure successful accomplishment of the task.
     6. Be flexible and alter his/her leadership style to fit needs of the mission.
     7. Delegate whatever tasks subordinates are qualified to handle.

9-400 Leadership Training of Third Class

401 All third classmen will be required to attend a "Third Class Leadership Seminar" that will be given during the fall and spring terms.  The spring term training will be expanded to include cadets seeking leadership positions for the new academic year.  The course will be taught by the Company Officers and will focus on leadership characteristics, techniques, and procedures that will develop effective leaders.

9-500 Leadership Responsibilities of First, Second and Third Class Cadets

501 All First, Second and Third Class Cadets have an inherent responsibility to conduct themselves in a manner befitting their status at the Academy.  The upper classmen set the example in all respects and at all times.  The personal conduct of all upper classmen is a reflection of their professionalism and their adherence to the Honor Code.  Their actions reflect directly upon the freshmen cadets and set the tone form the academic year.  The upperclassmen are responsible for their actions, and in turn will be held accountable by the Academy.

502 First, Second and Third Class Cadets who have a leadership position have volunteered to accept and assume their duties. In turn they are tasked with the responsibility of conducting themselves in an exemplary and professional manner at all times.  The requirement extends throughout the academic year and does not stop at the end of orientation.  Responsibility does not begin or end with handling, training and instructing the freshmen cadets.  Cadets in leadership positions must address the failings and shortcomings of the upper classmen who are their peers.  To enforce all standards, a cadet must make impartial decisions based upon the written policies of the Academy, the Honor Code and his/her own sound judgment.